2018 New Tax Rate Changes – Individuals and Corporations

John (Rusty) Davis, CPA

Following is an overview of individual and corporate tax rate changes enacted by TCJA.

Prior Individual Rates. Individuals are subject to income tax on “ordinary income,” such as compensation, and most retirement and interest income, at increasing rates that apply to different ranges of income depending on their filing status (single; married filing jointly, including surviving spouse; married filing separately; and head of household). For 2017 those rates were 10%, 15%, 25%, 28%, 33%, 35%, and 39.6%.

New Individual Rates. For the 2018 tax year and continuing through 2025, there will still be seven tax brackets for individuals, but their percentage rates will change to: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, and 37%.

The following tables show the dollar ranges of these new individual brackets.

Single Individuals’ 2018 Income Tax Rates

If taxable income is: The tax is:
Not over $9,525 10% of taxable income
Over $9,525 but not over $38,700 $952.50 plus 12% of the excess over $9,525
Over $38,700 but not over $82,500 $4,453.50 plus 22% of the excess over $38,700
Over $82,500 but not over $157,500 $14,089.50 plus 24% of the excess over $82,500
Over $157,500 but not over $200,000 $32,089.50 plus 32% of the excess over $157,500
Over $200,000 but not over $500,000 $45,689.50 plus 35% of the excess over $200,000
Over $500,000 $150,689.50 plus 37% of the excess over $500,000

Married Filing Jointly and Surviving Spouse 2018 Income Tax Rates

If taxable income is: The tax is:
Not over $19,050 10% of taxable income
Over $19,050 but not over $77,400 $1,905 plus 12% of the excess over $19,050
Over $77,400 but not over $165,000 $8,907 plus 22% of the excess over $77,400
Over $165,000 but not over $315,000 $28,179 plus 24% of the excess over $165,000
Over $315,000 but not over $400,000 $64,179 plus 32% of the excess over $315,000
Over $400,000 but not over $600,000 $91,379 plus 35% of the excess over $400,000
Over $600,000 $161,379 plus 37% of the excess over $600,000

Married Filing Separate 2018 Income Tax Rates

If taxable income is: The tax is:
Not over $9,525 10% of taxable income
Over $9,525 but not over $38,700 $952.50 plus 12% of the excess over $9,525
Over $38,700 but not over $82,500 $4,453.50 plus 22% of the excess over $38,700
Over $82,500 but not over $157,500 $14,089.50 plus 24% of the excess over $82,500
Over $157,500 but not over $200,000 $32,089.50 plus 32% of the excess over $157,500
Over $200,000 but not over $300,000 $45,689.50 plus 35% of the excess over $200,000
Over $300,000 $80,689.50 plus 37% of the excess over $300,000

Head of Household 2018 Income Tax Rates

If taxable income is: The tax is:
Not over $13,600 10% of taxable income
Over $13,600 but not over $51,800 $1,360 plus 12% of the excess over $13,600
Over $51,800 but not over $82,500 $5,944 plus 22% of the excess over $51,800
Over $82,500 but not over $157,500 $12,698 plus 24% of the excess over $82,500
Over $157,500 but not over $200,000 $30,698 plus 32% of the excess over $157,500
Over $200,000 but not over $500,000 $44,298 plus 35% of the excess over $200,000
Over $500,000 $149,298 plus 37% of the excess over $500,000

Capital Gain Rates. For 2017, three tax brackets apply to net capital gains, including certain kinds of dividends, of individuals and other noncorporate taxpayers: 0% for net capital gain that would be taxed at the 10% or 15% rate if it were ordinary income; 15% for gain that would be taxed above 15% and below 39.6% if it were ordinary income, or 20% for gain that would be taxed at the 39.6% ordinary income rate.

The TCJA general keeps the existing rates and breakpoints on net capital gains and qualified dividends. For 2018, the 15% breakpoint is: $77,200 for joint returns and surviving spouses (half this amount for married taxpayers filing separately), $51,700 for heads of household, and $38,600 for other unmarried individuals. The 20% breakpoint is $479,000 for joint returns and surviving spouses (half this amount for married taxpayers filing separately), $452,400 for heads of household, and $425,800 for any other individual (other than an estate or trust).

2018 Individual Tax Planning. While these changes will lower rates at many income levels, determining the overall impact on any particular individual or family will depend on a variety of other changes made by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, including increases in the standard deduction, loss of personal and dependency exemptions, a dollar limit on itemized deductions for state and local taxes, and changes to the child tax credit and the taxation of a child’s unearned income, known as the Kiddie Tax. Importantly, these new tax rates will not affect your tax liabilities on 2017 tax returns, however they will almost immediately affect the amount of your 2018 wage withholding and the amount, if any, of 2018 estimated tax that you may need to pay.

Future Individual Tax Planning. A related change included in TCJA is that the future annual indexing of the rate brackets (and many other tax amounts) for inflation, which helps to prevent “bracket creep” and the erosion of the value of a variety of deductions and credits due solely to inflation, will be done in a way that understates inflation more than the current method does. While it won’t be very recognizable immediately, over the years this will push some additional income into higher brackets and reduce the value of many tax breaks.

Corporate Income Tax Rate Cut. For 2017, C corporations are subject to graduated tax rates of 15% for taxable income up to $50,000, 25% (over $50,000 to $75,000), 34% (over $75,000 to $10,000,000), and 35% (over $10,000,000). The benefit of lower corporate rate brackets was phased out at higher income levels. Personal service corporations pay tax on their entire taxable income at the rate of 35%.

Beginning with the 2018 tax year, the TCJA makes the corporate tax rate a flat 21%. It also eliminates the corporate alternative minimum tax.